An agreement for the sale of goods is a contract. In that contract, the rights and obligations of each party may be created by 'express' terms, i.e. terms that are specifically set out. Rights and obligations may also exist because of terms implied into the contract, i.e. terms that aren't specifically set out. These can include those implied by legislation protecting buyers. If any one of those terms is breached, e.g. the goods are defective, the buyer would have a claim for damages for any loss they may have suffered. They may also be entitled to reject the goods. A consumer has additional remedies such as a right to ask for a repair or replacement of the goods, and a right to a price reduction.
There are various Acts that imply terms into contracts for the sale of goods, the supply of goods and services (work and materials contracts), and hire purchase contracts. If the goods don't comply with these implied terms, the buyer can claim for breach of contract against the seller. These various Acts still apply to business customers, and to consumers for contracts made before the commencement of the Consumer Rights Act 2015 (1 October 2015). The Consumer Rights Act 2015 consolidates the same rights for consumers into one Act and applies to consumer contracts made after that date.
There's an implied term that the seller has title to (i.e. owns) the goods and therefore has the right to sell them. There's also an implied term in a hire-purchase agreement that a hirer will have title to the goods when they pass title to the buyer.
The goods must correspond with the seller's description of them. This only applies if the buyer or hirer relies on the description of the goods. Goods sold to a consumer must also comply with the main characteristics stated in the pre-contract information supplied by the seller. (See)
If the goods are sold by sample, they must be the same as the sample.
Goods sold to a consumer must match any model of the goods seen or examined by the consumer before they entered into the contract. This right applies to consumer contracts made after 1 October 2015.
If goods are sold in the course of business, they must be of satisfactory quality. This means that the goods must meet the standard a reasonable person would expect, bearing in mind factors like the description of the goods and price.
When assessing whether goods are of satisfactory quality, their general state and condition are considered, as well as the following aspects:
If the goods aren't of satisfactory quality, the seller will have a defence if:
1. The seller has pointed out to the buyer specific defects before the contract is made; or
2. The buyer has examined the goods before the contract is made and should have noticed the defects.
If goods are sold in the course of business, they must also be reasonably fit for any special purpose for which the buyer has told the seller they need the goods. This doesn't apply where the buyer isn't relying on the skill or judgement of the seller, or where it wouldn't be reasonable for them to do so.
For example, if the buyer is an expert in relation to the goods, and the seller isn't, it wouldn't be reasonable for the buyer to rely on the seller's skill or judgement. If goods are supplied under a hire purchase agreement, there's an implied term that they're fit for special purposes that the hirer tells the creditor or credit broker about.
Under the Consumer Rights Act 2015, goods installed by the seller for the consumer as part of the contract must be installed correctly. If they aren't, the goods themselves won't conform to the contract.
The Consumer Rights Act 2015 recognises 'digital content' as a separate concept from goods and services. Digital content is defined as data produced or supplied in digital form. This includes computer programs, applications, games, music, videos and texts. If goods incorporate digital content, the goods themselves won't conform to the contract if the digital content doesn't conform.